TTHealthWatch is a weekly podcast from Texas Tech. In it, Elizabeth Tracey, director of digital media for Johns Hopkins Remedy, and Rick Lange, MD, president of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso, search at the high medical tales of the week. A transcript of the podcast is below the summary.
This week’s matters comprise counseling to decrease sexually transmitted an infection (STI) transmission, the metabolic influence of bariatric surgical operation, peculiar fractures with bisphosphonates, and treatment of musculoskeletal hassle.
1: 05 USPSTF steering on counseling for STI reduction
2: 11 Lengthen in neonatal syphilis
3: 12 Want behavioral counseling
4: 49 No extra serve to surgical operation
5: 50 Metabolic effects the identical
7: 40 Asian, bigger weight, glucocorticoids
8: 46 Cease many extra hip fractures
10: 40 Topical nonsteroidal gels quantity 1
11: 37 Low likelihood of deleterious effects
12: 33 Terminate
Elizabeth Tracey: Unique steering from the USPSTF on lowering STIs.
Rick Lange: Solutions for treating musculoskeletal accidents.
Elizabeth: A more in-depth search at bisphosphonates and peculiar fractures.
Rick: Does gastric bypass non-public metabolic advantages, extra so than diet?
Elizabeth: That’s what we’re talking about this week on TTHealthWatch, your weekly search at the medical headlines from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso. I am Elizabeth Tracey, a Baltimore-primarily based medical journalist.
Rick: And I am Rick Lange, president of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso, the place I am moreover the Dean of the Paul L. Foster Faculty of Remedy.
Elizabeth: And Rick, noteworthily, I will relate, we’re now not talking about COVID-19 this week. We’re totally falling off of the reservation.
Rick: Smartly, I am positive we’ll bag abet on, nonetheless I show you this is the first time in months that we haven’t had a COVID-connected article, so I am wanting to talk in regards to the analysis. The place invent you will need to have to originate up?
Elizabeth: I deem I’d take care of to originate up — because I could point out the COVID pandemic — pleasing briefly now not lower than, for the length of the context of this teach advice, nonetheless the USPSTF has pleasing launched updated steering relative to behavioral counseling for STIs — sexually transmitted infections — in show to decrease those.
The reason I will segue into COVID-19, now not lower than briefly, is because there are so much of concerns about increasing charges of these, particularly HIV, for the length of the context of the pandemic. In explain that’s one ache. Useless to relate, there is a bunch of different concerns, and these are revealed in JAMA.
About a of the background is that for the closing decade the U.S. has been experiencing an escalating disaster of STIs. There has been a 63% expand in gonorrhea, 71% expand in syphilis, and if truth be told unfortunately, 185% expand in congenital syphilis circumstances. Useless to relate, the influence on neonates can even be if truth be told deleterious.
To boot, we behold that these traits disproportionately non-public an influence on Unlit, Hispanic, and sexual minority communities, along side men who non-public intercourse with men. The other component to serve in mind is that we’re moreover seeing increasing antimicrobial resistance amongst gonorrhea traces. Straight away, amongst the resistant traces, there is simplest one instructed treatment regimen that’s readily accessible.
So this is moderately a dire background and the USPSTF took a search in any admire of these ideas relative to, “Whats up, does it work to non-public behavioral counseling?” They looked at ranges of approaches — interactive computer-primarily based interventions, blended approaches, in-person adopted by telephone or computer adopted by in-person, and shorter interventions, lower than 30 minutes of contact time.
They on the total attain to the conclusion that even a single STI-HIV prevention counseling session can positively non-public an influence on behavior. They moreover cite some moderately distressing statistics that relate that in main care visits surveyed in 2020, 65% of those visits did now not comprise any sexual history-taking and did now not if truth be told dart into this entire behavioral counseling component. With a B advice, they’re announcing, “Individuals, we non-public bought to bag this behavioral counseling on board.”
Rick: Here goes to settle a multi-pronged methodology. Now we non-public got to non-public fresh biomedical interventions, and that’s more fresh antibiotics, vaccines, point-of-care diagnostic checking out, those forms of things. The 2nd component we wish to invent is expand bag entry to to care. The third, you highlighted, and that’s the reason the efforts to meaningfully decrease the risk behavior for sexually transmitted illness acquisition. It be a huge problem and, all over again, a multi-pronged methodology is a in point of fact mighty.
Elizabeth: Very accurate. Let’s pass on to 1 of yours. Which invent you diagram end out?
Rick: Let’s talk in regards to the effects of diet versus gastric bypass surgical operation on the metabolic just in diabetic patients. Let me situation this up. It be positive that bariatric surgical operation is much less advanced than medical therapy for treatment of form 2 diabetes.
It has been proposed that there are uncommon effects on sugar serve watch over — or glycemic serve watch over — with the gastric bypass surgical operation, because those that basically invent bypass, evidently it has a bigger metabolic influence than those that serve intestinal motility. The attach a matter to is, is there something about gastric bypass in and above diet that improves metabolic serve watch over?
To tackle this — this is a terribly very effectively-accomplished admire on 22 patients that had obesity diabetes — they matched two groups up, those that had the gastric bypass surgical operation versus those that had diet. Appealing satisfactory, they had an identical quantity of weight loss.
And in every of these groups, they measured liver insulin sensitivity, muscle insulin sensitivity, beta cell just within the pancreas, and 24-hour glucose and insulin profiles in these two groups. In every groups, there modified into as soon as an enchancment in metabolic just, nonetheless there modified into as soon as no extra serve of the gastric bypass surgical operation.
Therefore, the attain of metabolic just is thanks to the decrease in weight, now not attributable to the teach route of, and also you bag the identical serve no matter whether you invent gastric bypass surgical operation or whether you had the identical weight reduction the usage of diet by myself.
Elizabeth: A couple things about this, unnecessary to relate. On the plus aspect of now not having gastric bypass surgical operation, we know that there are metabolic deficiencies which would possibly perhaps perhaps presumably even very effectively be offered since the surgical operation, and supplementation etc that’s required going forward. On the opposite hand, I’d relate that one component that I’ve repeatedly been extraordinarily intrigued by is the dramatic enchancment in diabetes that appears to occur as we teach after gastric bypass is performed. So how will we legend for that for the length of the context of this admire?
Rick: What occurs with gastric bypass surgical operation is the load reduction is grand extra snappily than it is with diet. Now, interestingly satisfactory, after gastric bypass surgical operation, whenever you happen to present a excessive-glycemic diet, the sugar increases dramatically and then falls dramatically as effectively, as we teach after the meal, in explain that over the lengthy proceed the metabolic effects are the identical as with diet.
The if truth be told valuable serve of gastric surgical operation is or now not it is less complicated in weight reduction than diet. Obviously, diet takes a shiny amount of self-serve watch over, now not simplest for attaining a diet, nonetheless declaring the load loss, and we discover that many folk — completely within the US — are seemingly to be now not ready to invent that. It if truth be told ought to still be extended to folks that basically are unable to influence weight loss by dietary restrictions.
Elizabeth: As an addendum to that, I’d offer that an are attempting at doing this by diet, in step with this admire, I deem within the raze would be greater within the lengthy proceed.
Rick: Yeah. Again, you cannot invent the competitors that gastric bypass surgical operation has magical or tremendous effects that diet would now not non-public. That is pleasing now not the case, and so I have faith you. Diet ought to still be the first are attempting.
Elizabeth: Staying within the Unique England Journal of Remedy — the place, unnecessary to relate, that admire modified into as soon as — now we’ll focus on one more doable problem: “What’s the diagram back of bisphosphonates?” Bisphosphonates, unnecessary to relate, prescribed to many ladies folk 50 years of age or older for prevention of hip fractures. We know that hip fractures, unnecessary to relate, a in point of fact dire , connected to death within the raze. But does that result in extra peculiar femur fractures, which has been observed in old analysis?
This admire modified into as soon as accomplished within the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Healthcare Machine. They’d 196,129 ladies folk and — unnecessary to relate, I’d take care of to behold this forever — 277 peculiar femur fractures occurred in this inhabitants within the be conscious-up. The risk of their peculiar atomize increased with longer length of bisphosphonates. For those ladies folk who had been taking them for 8 years or extra, it increased their hazard ratio 44-fold. Risk components that had been moreover connected to this had been being Asian, high, bigger weight, and glucocorticoid use. And whenever you discontinued bisphosphonates, it’s also possible to decrease your risk of peculiar atomize with out observe.
After I attach all this together, what they influence is Asians non-public a bigger risk than whites. But whenever you search at hip fractures versus peculiar femur fractures, there is if truth be told still a elegant mighty risk-serve ratio that argues in want of bisphosphonates.
Rick: Let’s attach some numbers on that. The bisphosphonate is supposed to end hip fractures attributable to osteoporosis, and also you highlighted the risk components connected to peculiar fractures with bisphosphonates — that’s, Asians, being fast, the usage of glucocorticoids — nonetheless the risk components for osteoporosis are moderately just a few. They’re older age, old fractures, and those which non-public a low bone mineral density.
If you give those folks bisphosphonates and also you happen to be Caucasian, you end 149 hip fractures at the risk of inflicting two bisphosphonate peculiar fractures. If you happen to be Asian, bisphosphonates end 91 osteoporotic hip fractures at the risk of eight peculiar fractures. This permits us to invent of weigh the risk-serve of bisphosphonates for diverse folk and over moderately just a few populations.
Elizabeth: They moreover renowned in this admire a couple other things that I belief had been inviting. One is that amongst the Asian inhabitants, they experienced increased lateral tensile forces because they’ve extra bowed femora, this anatomic dissimilarity that can sign why there is a particular problem.
They moreover non-public bigger treatment adherence. If you happen to present them something, they settle it, and there are genetic variations of their drug metabolism and bone turnover. So I belief that modified into as soon as if truth be told spell binding.
They moreover took a search at what about drug holidays? Might we pleasing pulse the stuff, settle it for moderately while, and then settle it in any admire over all over again? They weren’t too glad about that likelihood.
Rick: Overall, what I need our listeners to realise is even supposing the risk of peculiar atomize with the bisphosphonate is clearly there, the overwhelming serve in phrases of struggling with osteoporotic fractures is de facto excessive and the serve outweighs even the increased risk connected to peculiar fractures.
Elizabeth: Let us flip now to Annals of Internal Remedy. Here’s a clinical tenet and or now not it is taking a search at the administration of acute hassle from non-low abet musculoskeletal accidents in adults.
Rick: We’re talking about circumstances that motive 65 million healthcare visits within the US and four out of 5 accidents that had been treated in a physician’s situation of job are musculoskeletal, so this is enormous.
They did two systematic proof reports. They did a network meta-evaluation on the comparative efficacy and safety of moderately just a few remedies, and then they moreover looked at a systematic assessment on the predictors of prolonged opioid use, because that’s one of many proposed remedies. I am pleasing going to summarize. They’d four ideas, Elizabeth.
As advice #1 — so this is their best possible advice, and or now not it is a solid advice primarily based upon sensible-sure guess proof — that topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, either with or with out a menthol gel, as first-line therapy to decrease or reduction signs along side hassle. It improves physical just and it improves affected person pride. Elizabeth, I am taken aback. Let me pass on, though.
Advice #2, sensible-sure guess proof, is that if that’s unsuccessful, then oral NSAIDs had been shown to be effective, all over again, in lowering or relieving signs along side hassle, bettering physical just, either with or with out oral acetaminophen. Advice 2B is to use teach acupressure to decrease hassle and offers a enhance to physical just. It does non-public some serve.
Advice 3 is particularly against clinicians treating folks with acute hassle with opioids, and that even comprises Tramadol. We know that just a few fourth of these patients which would possibly perhaps perhaps presumably even very effectively be treated with opioids proceed to use them, either prolonged use or the tremendous want of pills increases to opioid abuse. What are your tips?
Elizabeth: Smartly, I insist I am overjoyed that members are having a search at this systematically and determining that these topical things are accurate because they’ve a in point of fact low likelihood of deleterious effects.
Rick: They looked at valuable things, does it reduction hassle, either inside lower than 2 hours or over 1 to 7 days, does it give a enhance to physical just, does it give a enhance to the affected person’s pride? Oral medications invent, nonetheless they create some risk in phrases of these NSAIDs inflicting acute gastritis, or ulcers, or kidney illness, or raising the blood stress of some folk, and the topical NSAIDs invent now not invent that.
I modified into as soon as if truth be told taken aback that the proof modified into as soon as sensible-sure guess — a solid advice — for topical NSAIDs. It be completely going to substitute the ideas I invent to my patients.
Elizabeth: On that define, that’s a search at this week’s medical headlines from Texas Tech. I am Elizabeth Tracey.
Rick: And I am Rick Lange. Y’all listen up and invent wholesome selections.